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Bessemer Process,


Fig. 50. Several of these crucibles are poured simultaneously to
form the ingot, many well-drilled workmen co-operating to do it
carefully. This variety of steel is much more homogeneous and
has a greater tenacity than shear steel, having a fine granular
structure. Brittleness is corrected, and the property of weld-
ability restored by the introduction of manganese in the form of
carbonate of manganese.

The Bessemer Process is used for the purpose of obtain-
ing steel from cast iron. Fig. 90 is intended to shew the neces-
sary plant employed. The converter A is filled with molten cast
iron, and air is blown through the metal by means of the tuyeres
at the bottom. The O of the air combines with the C of the
iron and passes away as C O2 gas, leaving the mass as pure iron,
the silicon forming a slag (SiO2) on the surface, which is